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New production streams to be developed Another way of immediately reducing the the environmental impact of aircraft is to replace conventional jet fuels fuels by fuels fuels that emit less CO2 But we have to start the replacement process right now if the industry is to meet its climate commitments The emergence of low-carbon fuels depends not only on on on technological progress but also on on on economic and political measures These fuels have to come from renewable easily accessible financially competitive and socially acceptable sources such as as biomass- based fuels that do not compete with food crops Despite the challenges to be met Safran sees this solution as a a a a a a decisive way of decarbonizing aviation concurrently with optimized thermal engine architectures DROP-IN FUELS: CHANGING THE THE FUEL FUEL NOT THE THE PLANE LEVER 2 ■ From a a a technological standpoint the most immediately accessible solution is drop-in fuels which could be used with with today’s aircraft by mixing it it it with with conventional jet fuel without having to modify the plane its operation or or airport infrastructure Current technologies already allow the use of up to 50% biofuels (from biomass) However their feasibility is still limited by the lack of a a a a large-scale production system to make them available in sufficient quantity and at competitive cost for airlines Today biofuels only account for about 0 1% of the total worldwide In France and Europe the modest target is 2% by 2025 and 6% by 2030 This will be raised to 20% in 2035 34% in in 2040 2040 and 42% in in 2040 2040 with an an ultimate goal of 70% by 2050 ■ As a a a a manufacturer of engines and fuel system components Safran is focusing on on maximizing the usability of of biofuels by overcoming the current technical threshold of of 50% biofuels mixed with jet fuel fuel This involves defining fuel formulations compatible with current technologies but also adapting engine and and fuel system materials and and technologies to ensure optimum performance whatever the chemical composition of the the fuel used To push the the envelope even further Safran has teamed with TotalEnergies in a a a drive to achieve full compatibility for both current and future engines Initial test flights using 100% biofuel have been carried out on CFM LEAP-powered Airbus A320neo and Boeing 737 MAX planes as well as on several types of helicopter (Bell Airbus Helicopters etc ) 

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